These are areas of hard skin that are formed as a result of excess pressure, shear or friction on areas of the foot. A corn has a central core where the pressure has been concentrated.
Reasons for removal
. To alleviate pain
. To prevent muscle/ligament strains from trying to offload the areas
. To prevent ulceration of the areas if the corns or callus are left to get too large/deep (particularly important in Diabetic or other high risk patients)
. To prevent fissures/cracking and blistering beneath
. Prevention of falls in elderly or disabled patients and increase mobility
. Cosmetic purposes
The medical name for athlete’s foot caused by a fungus is tinea pedis. There are a variety of fungi that cause athlete’s foot, and these can be contracted in many locations, including gyms, locker rooms, swimming pools, nail salons, and from contaminated socks and clothing. The fungi can also be spread directly from person to person by contact. Most people acquire fungus on the feet from walking barefoot in areas where someone else with athlete’s foot has walked. Some people are simply more prone to this condition while others seem relatively resistant to it. At Lucern Clinic we can will examine the area during your consultation.
Stage 1 – characterised by a reddening over bony areas. The redness on the skin does not go away when pressure is relieved.
Stage 2 – characterised by blisters, peeling or cracked skin. There is a partial thickness skin loss involving the top two layers of the skin.
Stage 3 – characterised by broken skin and sometimes bloody drainage. There is a full thickness skin loss involving subcutaneous tissue (the tissue between the skin and the muscle.)
Stage 4 – characterised by breaks in the skin involving skin, muscle, tendon and bone and are often associated with a bone infection called osteomyelitis.
Foot Ulcers occur for the following reasons;
Neuropathic – loss of sensation in the feet.
Arterial – due to poor blood flow to the lower extremity. This type of ulcer can be very painful and is usually found on the tips of toes, lower legs, ankle, heel and top of the foot. It can very easily become infected.
Venous – This type of ulcer is due to compromised veins. It is commonly seen around the inside of the ankle and are slow to heal.
Decubitus – This type of ulcer is caused by excessive prolonged pressure on one area of the foot. The most common place to see this type of ulcer is in a person confined to bed and they occur on the backs of the heels.
Heat, moisture and friction are generally the cause of blisters. Blisters can also form from fungal infections, allergic reactions, and burns. Because of a condition called neuropathy, or nerve damage, diabetes often are unable to detect a burn because there is no pain. Proper care of blisters should involve draining their fluid but leaving their “skin” intact. Protect with a non-stick bandage with mild compression. Skin sprays and adhesive gel pads, as well as special socks, help minimise friction.